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万物简史(MP3+中英字幕) 第656期:永不安分的类人猿(7)

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For a long time, it was believed that the Cro-Magnons, as modern humans in Europe became known, drove the Neandertals before them as they advanced across the continent, eventually forcing them to its western margins, where essentially they had no choice but to fall in the sea or go extinct. In fact, it is now known that Cro-Magnons were in the far west of Europe at about the same time they were also coming in from the east. "Europe was a pretty empty place in those days," Tattersall says. "They may not have encountered each other all that often, even with all their comings and goings." One curiosity of the Cro-Magnons' arrival is that it came at a time known to paleoclimatology as the Boutellier interval, when Europe was plunging from a period of relative mildness into yet another long spell of punishing cold. Whatever it was that drew them to Europe, it wasn't the glorious weather.

在很长一段时期里,人们认为,被称为欧洲现代人的克罗马农人在向欧洲大陆推进的过程中,将他们之前的尼安德特人驱赶到西海岸,尼安德特人要么跳海,要么灭绝,除此之外别无选择。事实上,我们现在知道,克罗乌农人从东部向欧洲内陆挺进时,遥远的西部也有克罗马农人。www.gamegt.com_【官方首页】-冠通棋牌“那时欧洲是一个空无人烟的地方,”塔特萨尔说.“即使在他们来往穿梭的时候,他们也很难狭路相逢。一克罗马农人到达歇溯的疑点之一是,当时欧洲正好处在古气象学所谓的波特利尔间冰期,欧洲气候突然从相对温暖转向另一个漫长的寒冷时期。www.gamegt.com_【官方首页】-冠通棋牌无论是什么原因驱使克罗马农人到欧洲,反正不是冰川气候。

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In any case, the idea that Neandertals crumpled in the face of competition from newly arrived Cro-Magnons strains against the evidence at least a little. Neandertals were nothing if not tough. For tens of thousands of years they lived through conditions that no modern human outside a few polar scientists and explorers has experienced. During the worst of the ice ages, blizzards with hurricane-force winds were common. Temperatures routinely fell to 50 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. Polar bears padded across the snowy vales of southern England. Neandertals naturally retreated from the worst of it, but even so they will have experienced weather that was at least as bad as a modern Siberian winter. They suffered, to be sure—a Neandertal who lived much past thirty was lucky indeed—but as a species they were magnificently resilient and practically indestructible. They survived for at least a hundred thousand years, and perhaps twice that, over an area stretching from Gibraltar to Uzbekistan, which is a pretty successful run for any species of being.

无论如何,认为尼安德特人在新来的竞争者克罗马农人面前彻底垮了台,至少有点儿有悖于考古发现所提供的证据。尼安德特人十分坚忍顽强,在长达几万年的时间里,他们生活在现代人当中只有极少数极地科学家和探险家才经历过的环境中。在冰川期气候最恶劣的时候,暴雪加上飓风级的大风成了家常便饭。温度经常降到零下45摄氏度,英格兰南部的冰谷中有北极熊走动。尼安德特人在气候最为恶劣的一段时期里自然向后退却。www.gamegt.com_【官方首页】-冠通棋牌即便如此,他们依然不得不经历至少和今天的西伯利亚冬天一样可怕的气候。毫无疑问,他们经历了磨难——尼安德特人能够活过30岁就已是十分幸运,但作为一种物种,他们具有很强的适应性和不屈不挠的性格。他们生存了至少10万年,也许是20万年,其范围从直布罗陀一直到乌兹别克斯坦。对于任何物种来说,这都是十分成功的。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
evidence ['evidəns]

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n. 根据,证据
v. 证实,证明

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interval ['intəvəl]

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n. 间隔,休息时间,(数学)区间,(音乐)音程

 
eventually [i'ventjuəli]

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adv. 终于,最后

 
resilient [ri'ziliənt]

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adj. 适应力强的,有弹力的

 
curiosity [.kjuəri'ɔsiti]

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n. 好奇,好奇心

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fell [fel]

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动词fall的过去式
n. 兽皮
v

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competition [kɔmpi'tiʃən]

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n. 比赛,竞争,竞赛

 
species ['spi:ʃiz]

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n. (单复同)物种,种类

 
extinct [iks'tiŋkt]

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adj. 灭绝的,熄灭的,耗尽的

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experienced [iks'piəriənst]

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adj. 有经验的

 

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